Identifying risks of human flea infestations in plague-endemic areas of Madagascar

Madagascar is one of the last places where outbreaks of human bubonic plague still happen regularly. Fleas carrying the plague bacterium Yersinia pestis can spread the disease through their bites. And while a species commonly known as “the rat flea” has been fingered as the main culprit in plague outbreaks, a species known as “the human flea” may play a secondary role.

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